SAP stands for Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatase whereas EXO stands for Exonuclease I. SAP and EXO are two hydrolytic enzymes. The purpose of this procedure is used to chew up excess primers and remove excess dNTPs from your PCR product. This procedure is necessary to ensure clean and readable DNA sequences. Read more
PCR is an in vitro technique which allows the amplification of a specific DNA region that lies between two region of known DNA sequence. PCR is a biochemistry and molecular biology technique for isolating and exponentially amplifying a fragment or sequence of interest of DNA, via enzymatic replication, without using a living organism. It can be performed without restrictions on the form of DNA, and it can be extensively modified to perform a wide array of genetic manipulations. PCR was invented in 1983 by Kary Mullis. PCR is now a common technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of tasks, such as the sequencing of genes and the diagnosis of hereditary diseases, the identification of genetic fingerprints (used in forensics and paternity testing), the detection and diagnosis of infectious diseases, and the creation of transgenic organisms. PCR is being also used for biosystematics, population biology, conservation biology, ecology, developmental biology, and genetics.
DNA extraction is a routine procedure to collect DNA for subsequent genetic engineering, forensics, bioinformatics, computation, history and anthropology analysis. There are some common extraction techniques used in technology DNA work include Chelex techniques. Although Chelex techniques is a limitation given the frequency with which PCR is used, it is not considered to be a serious limitation. Chelex extraction has several advantages over other traditionally used extraction techniques: it is a fast, cheap, and effective method of DNA extraction. Chelex extraction is well-established and has been used by molecular scientists for over a decade, it is a simple process that uses no hazardous chemicals.Read more